Queen Elizabeth II, the monarch who brought stability to a changing nation

Queen Elizabeth II, the monarch who brought stability to a changing nation

Queen Elizabeth II, the monarch who brought stability to a changing nation

LONDON — Four years before she took the throne as Queen Elizabeth II, she made a pledge.
“I declare before you that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service, and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong,” the 21-year-old Elizabeth Alexandra Mary then said.
That decades-long reign of service ended Thursday, when Queen Elizabeth II died at her Balmoral estate in Scotland, at age 96.
For 70 years, she served as the constitutional monarch of the United Kingdom, the longest rule in British history.
Her reign spanned a remarkable arc in British history and was defined by duty to country and considerable family pain. Her death is a major milestone for the country, triggering an outpouring of national affection and grief.
It also comes at a time when the U.K. is transitioning from a deeply controversial prime minister, Boris Johnson, to a new one, Liz Truss, who just took over the job this week. The country faces skyrocketing inflation and the challenge of the biggest war in Europe since 1945.
Elizabeth was born into an empire on which the sun never set and was the country’s last major figure with a connection to World War II, a searing, ultimately triumphant experience that, for some, continues to define the nation. On V-E Day in 1945, Elizabeth, then 19, described slipping out of Buckingham Palace to join the jubilant crowds.
“I remember lines of unknown people, linking arms and walking down Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief,” she recalled. “It was one of the most memorable nights of my life.”


Later, Elizabeth watched as Britain lost most of its colonies and much of its power. There were many personal lows, including the divorces of three of her four children; the death of her former daughter-in-law Diana; and a sex scandal involving her son Prince Andrew. Late in her reign, her grandson Prince Harry left the family and England to settle in California with his American wife, Meghan Markle.
Through the ups and downs of her tenure, her hard work and longevity won her deep admiration across the United Kingdom.
Born Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor in London in 1926, her ascension to the throne was an accident of history. In 1936, her uncle, King Edward VIII abdicated to marry Wallis Simpson, a divorced American woman. Elizabeth’s shy, stammering father assumed the throne as George VI, placing her next in line.
When World War II erupted three years later, Princess Elizabeth began performing official royal duties and delivered the first of many broadcasts, billed as addresses to the children of the British Empire.


In 1947, at age 21, she married Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, a dashing naval officer and distant cousin with whom she’d fallen in love in her early teens.
While traveling in Kenya five years later, Elizabeth received grim news from home that her father, who suffered from heart disease and cancer, had died in his sleep. A year later, her lavish coronation in Westminster Abbey drew a global TV audience.
Elizabeth made a glamorous young queen in the gray, postwar years — but also a remote one. Occasionally, she appeared to drop her guard and allowed TV cameras into her home. She spoke of her embrace of the predictability of royal life and how younger family members chafed under its strictures.
“If you live this sort of life, which people don’t very much,” she said with a laugh, “you live very much by tradition and by continuity. I find that’s one of the sad things, that people don’t take on jobs for life, they try different things all the time.”
Given the nature of her job, Elizabeth said she knew exactly what she would be doing in the next two months or even the coming year.
“I think this is what the younger members [of the royal family] find difficult, is the regimented side of it,” she added.
Difficulties involving younger royals led to some of the most painful periods of the queen’s life.
In just one year — 1992 — the marriages of her three oldest children collapsed. That November, fire devastated Windsor Castle, her childhood home along the banks of the River Thames outside London.
“In the words of one of my more sympathetic correspondents, it has turned out to be an ‘annus horribilis,’ ” the queen said.
“I think the queen really felt deeply wounded by the lack of success of her family,” says Sarah Bradford, the author of several biographies of Elizabeth. “She just felt humiliated and possibly she felt guilty about it.”
Five years later, things grew far worse, when paparazzi on motorcycles chased Diana, Princess of Wales, through Paris. She died after the Mercedes she was traveling in crashed into a pillar in a tunnel along the Seine River.
Diana had recently divorced Prince Charles, but remained for many a sympathetic figure.
Instead of returning to London to lead her people in mourning, the queen remained in her castle in Balmoral, comforting her grandchildren, Diana’s sons, Princes William and Harry. Many Britons were furious and saw the queen as out of touch and uncaring.
“The week before Diana’s funeral was probably the low point of the queen’s life,” Bradford says, “because for the first time in her life, she was actually really criticized, deeply criticized.”

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